Philosophy ¶ Filosofía
Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotleto the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics.
Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic, philosophy of science, and the history of Western philosophy.
Since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors. However, many of those who study philosophy in undergraduate or graduate programs contribute in the fields of law, journalism, politics, religion, science, business and various art and entertainment activities.
The SEP gratefully acknowledges founding support from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, The American Philosophical Association/Pacific Division, The Canadian Philosophical Association, and the Philosophy Documentation Center. Fundraising efforts were supported by a grant from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.
A summary of the history of philosophy showing the positive/negative connections between ideas
William Somerset Maugham
La filosofía es una meditación de la muerte.
Erasmo de Rotterdam
La filosofía occidental ha tenido una profunda influencia y se ha visto profundamente influida por la ciencia, la religión y la políticaoccidentales.1011 Muchos filósofos importantes fueron a la vez grandes científicos, teólogos o políticos y algunas nociones fundamentales de estas disciplinas todavía son objeto de estudio filosófico. Esta superposición entre disciplinas se debe a que la filosofía es una disciplina muy amplia.
Se ofrecen versiones digitales de artículos aparecidos en obras ya clásicas.